Some searchers believe a pair of house flies can produce enough off spring to cover the earth in less than one year, assuming all their off spring and subsequent generations survive.
The house fly is a medium sized fly, about ¼ inch in length. The house fly is mostly grey with four dark longitudinal stripes on its prothorax and sharp curve on its leading wing edge in its fourth longitudinal vein. Often confused with the face fly, a house fly’s calyptere is bare while the face fly has a tuft of bristles where its calyptere attaches to the thorax.
BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR House flies are probably the most common fly in the word, easily found around dwellings and livestocks. House fly, like all fly, enter four life stages (egg, larvae, popup and adult). A female fly will deposit up to 150 white eggs at a time (each about 1 mm in length) on fresh animal manure or some other decaying organic matter. Larvae emerge from the eggs 8 to 20 hours later and feed on the surrounding matter for as little as 3 to 8 days in warm weather (6 to 8 weeks at cooler temperatures) before seeking a cool, dry location to pupate. The pupal stage may very in length from 3 days to 4 weeks depending on temperature and humidity and may take place 150 feet or more from breeding site. 10 to 12 generation of house flies are possible in one summer. The life span of a house fly varies from 2 to 3 days without food and up to 54 days with food and favorable environment conditions. House flies can travel great distances but generally remain within one mile of their breeding site. House flies are known to harbor many disease organisms such as : typhoid fever, cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax, opthalmia, salmonella and E,coli bacteria.
FLY PREVENTION TIPS: Pet feces in yards is the most common source of house lies in a residential setting, so proper disposal of pet waste is important in managing fly populations. Surrounding properties, such as cattle farms and sewage treatment facilities, can attribute to fly problem but most flies originate with poor sanitation or exclusion issues in the near vicinity. Other common sources of fly problems are poor sanitation at trash receptacles and dumpsters. Keeping lids close help keep flies out and using liners reduce buildup and eases cleaning of the trash receptacle. Placing dumpster on sealed concrete pads away from the building and sealing all refuse in bags reduces attraction and aids in cleanup for spillage and leakage. Scheduling dumpster to be emptied twice a week during warmer months helps disrupt the fly life cycle. Keeping windows closed or properly screened and all doors sealed keeps flies from crawling indoor(most flies crawl, not fly, into structures). Fly baits around dumpster and exterior trash receptacles and microencapsulated or wettable powder residual insecticides applied to fly resting sites can greatly reduce fly population before they get indoors. Insect light traps are the best way to control interior fly populations.
Wasps make up an enormously diverse array of insects, with some 30,000 identified species. We are most familiar with those that are wrapped in bright warning colors—ones that buzz angrily about in groups and threaten us with painful stings. But most wasps are actually solitary, non-stinging varieties.
And all do far more good for humans by controlling pest insect populations than harm. Wasps are distinguishable from bees by their pointed lower abdomens and the narrow "waist," called a petiole, that separates the abdomen from the thorax. They come in every color imaginable, from the familiar yellow to brown, metallic blue, and bright red. Generally, the brighter colored species are in the Vespidae, or stinging wasp, family. All wasps build nests. Whereas bees secrete a waxy substance to construct their nests, wasps create their familiar papery abodes from wood fibers scraped with their hard mandibles and chewed into a pulp. Wasps are divided into two primary subgroups: social and solitary. Social wasps account for only about a thousand species and include formidable colony-builders, like yellow jackets and hornets. Social wasp colonies are started from scratch each spring by a queen who was fertilized the previous year and survived the winter by hibernating in a warm place. When she emerges, she builds a small nest and rears a starter brood of worker females. These workers then take over expanding the nest, building multiple six-sided cells into which the queen continually lays eggs. By late summer, a colony can have more than 5,000 individuals, all of whom, including the founding queen, die off at winter. Only newly fertilized queens survive the cold to restart the process in spring. Solitary wasps, by far the largest subgroup, do not form colonies. This group includes some of the wasp family's largest members, like cicada killers and the striking blue-and-orange tarantula hawks, which can both reach 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) in length. Whereas social wasps use their stingers only for defense, stinging solitary wasps rely on their venom to hunt. Most animals have developed a well-earned fear of stinging wasps and give them a wide berth. Creatures who haplessly stumble upon a wasp colony or have the audacity to disturb a nest will find themselves quickly swarmed. A social wasp in distress emits a pheromone that sends nearby colony members into a defensive, stinging frenzy. Unlike bees, wasps can sting repeatedly. Only females have stingers, which are actually modified egg-laying organs. Despite the fear they sometimes evoke, wasps are extremely beneficial to humans. Nearly every pest insect on Earth is preyed upon by a wasp species, either for food or as a host for its parasitic larvae. Wasps are so adept at controlling pest populations that the agriculture industry now regularly deploys them to protect crops.
More than 100 pathogens are associated with the house fly, including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, E. coli and Shigella. These pathogens can cause disease in humans and animals, including typhoid fever, cholera, bacillary dysentery and hepatitis. Sanitation is critical to controlling these pests, but accurate identification is essential for successful fly control. Here are some other things you should know about flies and fly control:
Depending on the species, the life expectancy of a fly is eight days to two months or, in some cases, up to a year.
Flies belong to the order Diptera, meaning two wings. There are more than 16,000 species of flies in North America.
Flies plague every part of the world except the polar ice caps.
One pair of flies can produce more than 1 million offspring through their offsprings’ offspring in a matter of weeks.
Millions of microorganisms may flourish in a single fly’s gut, while a half-billion more swarm over its body and legs.
Flies spread diseases readily because they move quickly from rotting, disease-laden garbage to exposed human foods and utensils.
Because they only have two wings, flies land often and therefore can deposit thousands of bacteria each time they land.
U.S. Department of Agriculture sources reveal that flies contaminate or destroy $10 billion worth of agricultural products annually.
Every time a fly lands, it sloughs off thousands of microbes. If a fly lands on food or utensils, customers may ingest germs that can trigger serious illness such as diarrhea, food poisoning, meningitis and bloodstream infections.
When flies feed on waste, they collect pathogens on their legs and mouths. These pathogens are then transferred to food on tables or counters when a fly lands again. Flies regurgitate on solid food then they eat the liquid. They are capable of transmitting disease when they vomit, groom themselves or just walk on surfaces.
The best way to repel flies is through simple, preventive measures. Flies prefer warm temperatures and are most active from late spring to early autumn. In order to best repel flies during this time, limit access to your home as much as possible, keeping doors and windows closed. You may also choose to screen windows, doors and vents. Keep garbage cans clean and securely closed. Keeping surfaces clean will make your home less appealing to flies. For best results, contact a pest control professional to discuss extermination options.